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Western Philosophy

FEAR OF FREEDOM

FEAR OF FREEDOM

By: Levi, Carlo
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Carlo Levi was a painter, writer, and antifascist Italian from a Jewish family, and his political activism forced him into exile for most of the Second World War. While in exile, he wrote Christ Stopped at Eboli, a memoir, and Fear of Freedom, a philosophical meditation on humanity's flight from moral and spiritual autonomy and our resulting loss of self and creativity. Brooding on what surely appeared to be the decline, if not the fall of Europe, Levi locates the human abdication of responsibility in organized religion and its ability to turn the sacred into the sacrificial. In doing so, he references the entire intellectual and cultural estate of Western civilization, from the Bible and Greek mythology to Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. This edition features newly published pieces of Levi's artwork and the first English translation of his essay "Fear of Painting," which was appended to a later publication of the work. It also includes an introduction that discusses Levi's life and enduring legacy. Written as war clouds were gathering over Europe, Fear of Freedom not only addresses a specific moment in history and a universal, timeless condition, but it is also a powerful indictment of our contemporary moral and political failures.

FEELING OUR FEELINGS

FEELING OUR FEELINGS

By: Brann, Eva
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A dazzling wealth of stimulating reflection and wise insight. To read Feeling Our Feelings is to relive one's own early moments of intellectual awakening, with the all the advantages of age and experience. Eva Brann proves to be a most steady and enlightening guide on an inquiry into the relation between life and thought that few have pursued so thoroughly.--Susan Shell, Department of Political Science, Boston College

In Feeling Our Feelings, Eva Brann considers what the great philosophers on the passions and feelings have thought and written about them. She examines the relevant work of Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Adam Smith, Hume, Kierkegaard, and Heidegger, and also includes a chapter on contemporary studies on the brain. Feeling Our Feelings provides a comprehensive look at this pervasive and elusive topic.

'Feeling our feelings' comes from the words a little boy called Zeke said to me some thirty years ago when he was four. I was swinging him in a park in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and not doing it right. 'Swing me higher, ' he said, 'I want to feel my feelings.' The phrase stuck with me; you might say it festered in my mind; it agitated questions: Why do we all want to feel our feelings, so generally that people 'not in touch' with them are thought to be in need of therapy? What feeling was swinging high inducing? Was it an exultation of the body or an exhilaration of the soul? When he wanted to be feeling his feelings, was there a difference between the general feeling, the mere consciousness of being affected, and his particular feelings, the distinguishable affects?--as, when you sing a song, there is a difference between the singing done and the song sung--or is there?--Eva Brann, from her Preface

Eva Brann is a member of the senior faculty at St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland, where she has taught for fifty years. Brann holds an M.A. in Classics and a Ph.D. in Archaeology from Yale University. She is a 2005 recipient of the National Humanities Medal.

FEMINIST THEORY & SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR

By: Moi, Toril
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FOR SELF-EXAMINATION/ JUDGE FOR YOURSELF

FOR SELF-EXAMINATION/ JUDGE FOR YOURSELF

By: Kierkegaard, Søren
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For Self-Examination and its companion piece Judge for Yourself! are the culmination of Søren Kierkegaard's "second authorship," which followed his Concluding Unscientific Postscript. Among the simplest and most readily comprehended of Kierkegaard's books, the two works are part of the signed direct communications, as distinguished from his earlier pseudonymous writings. The lucidity and pithiness, and the earnestness and power, of For Self-Examination and Judge for Yourself! are enhanced when, as Kierkegaard requested, they are read aloud. They contain the well-known passages on Socrates' defense speech, how to read, the lover's letter, the royal coachman and the carriage team, and the painter's relation to his painting. The aim of awakening and inward deepening is signaled by the opening section on Socrates in For Self-Examination and is pursued in the context of the relations of Christian ideality, grace, and response. The secondary aim, a critique of the established order, links the works to the final polemical writings that appear later after a four-year period of silence.

FORGIVENESS

FORGIVENESS

By: Griswold, Charles
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Nearly everyone has wronged another. Who among us has not longed to be forgiven? Nearly everyone has suffered the bitter injustice of wrongdoing. Who has not struggled to forgive? Charles Griswold has written the first comprehensive philosophical book on forgiveness in both its interpersonal and political contexts, as well as its relation to reconciliation. Having examined the place of forgiveness in ancient philosophy and in modern thought, he discusses what forgiveness is, what conditions the parties to it must meet, its relation to revenge and hatred, when it is permissible and whether it is obligatory, and why it is a virtue.
FOUCAULT READER

FOUCAULT READER

By: Foucault, Michel
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Selections of the noted philosopher's work from each of the disciplines that he has influenced - ranging from literary criticism to the history of criminology.

FOUNDATIONS MORAL POL PHILOS

By: Paul, Ellen Frankel
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FOUR PHENOMENOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHERS

FOUR PHENOMENOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHERS

By: Macann, Christopher
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Macann guides the student through the major texts of the four great thinkers of the phenomenological movement.
FRANCIS BACON

FRANCIS BACON

By: Zagorin, Perez
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Francis Bacon (1561-1626), commonly regarded as one of the founders of the Scientific Revolution, exerted a powerful influence on the intellectual development of the modern world. He also led a remarkably varied and dramatic life as a philosopher, writer, lawyer, courtier, and statesman. Although there has been much recent scholarship on individual aspects of Bacon's career, Perez Zagorin's is the first work in many years to present a comprehensive account of the entire sweep of his thought and its enduring influence. Combining keen scholarly and psychological insights, Zagorin reveals Bacon as a man of genius, deep paradoxes, and pronounced flaws.

The book begins by sketching Bacon's complex personality and troubled public career. Zagorin shows that, despite his idealistic philosophy and rare intellectual gifts, Bacon's political life was marked by continual careerism in his efforts to achieve advancement. He follows Bacon's rise at court and describes his removal from his office as England's highest judge for taking bribes. Zagorin then examines Bacon's philosophy and theory of science in connection with his project for the promotion of scientific progress, which he called "The Great Instauration." He shows how Bacon's critical empiricism and attempt to develop a new method of discovery made a seminal contribution to the growth of science. He demonstrates Bacon's historic importance as a prophetic thinker, who, at the edge of the modern era, predicted that science would be used to prolong life, cure diseases, invent new materials, and create new weapons of destruction. Finally, the book examines Bacon's writings on such subjects as morals, politics, language, rhetoric, law, and history. Zagorin shows that Bacon was one of the great legal theorists of his day, an influential philosopher of language, and a penetrating historian.

Clearly and beautifully written, the book brings out the richness, scope, and greatness of Bacon's work and draws together the many, colorful threads of an extraordinarily brilliant and many-sided mind.

FRANKFURT SCHOOL REVISITED

FRANKFURT SCHOOL REVISITED

By: Wolin, Richard
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This volume is a collection of essays by Richard Wolin, a leading political theorist and intellectual historian.

It is the follow up to Wolin's two recent, widely acclaimed books: Heidegger's Children and The Seduction of Unreason. In those books, he explored the legacy of Martin Heidegger and his impact on some of his most influential and notable students. He dealt particularly with the effect that Heidegger's subsequent embrace of fascism and National Socialism had on these students. Delving further in his next book, Wolin explored the question of why philosophers and intellectuals have been drawn to antiliberal, antidemocratic fascism.

The essays in this book are focused on European Political Thought particularly with figures associated with the Frankfurt School. The collection represents a virtual who's who of European political thinkers with essays on Walter Benjamin, Adorno, Marcuse, Arendt, Heidegger, Weber, Jaspers, and Carl Schmitt. Moving beyond these thinkers and those books, this collection will also include essays on contemporary political issues such as post-communist revolutions, human rights, global democracy, the revival of republicanism, and religion and public life.

FREEDOM & ITS CONDITIONS

FREEDOM & ITS CONDITIONS

By: Flathman, Richard
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First published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
FREEDOM and NATURE

FREEDOM and NATURE

By: Ricoeur, Paul
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This volume, the first part of Paul Ricoeur's Philosophy of the Will, is an eidetics, carried out within carefully imposed phenomenological brackets. It seeks to deal with the essential structure of man's being in the world, and so it suspends the distorting dimensions of existence, the bondage of passion, and the vision of innocence, to which Ricoeur returns in his later writings. The result is a conception of man as an incarnate Cogito, which can make the polar unity of subject and object intelligible and provide a basic continuity for the various aspects of inquiry into man's being-in-the-world.
FREEDOM EVOLVES

FREEDOM EVOLVES

By: Dennett, Daniel C
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Can there be freedom and free will in a deterministic world? Renowned philosopher Daniel Dennett emphatically answers "yes!" Using an array of provocative formulations, Dennett sets out to show how we alone among the animals have evolved minds that give us free will and morality. Weaving a richly detailed narrative, Dennett explains in a series of strikingly original
arguments--drawing upon evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, economics, and philosophy--that far from being an enemy of traditional explorations of freedom, morality, and meaning, the evolutionary perspective can be an indispensable ally. In Freedom Evolves, Dennett seeks to place ethics on the foundation it deserves: a realistic, naturalistic, potentially unified vision of our place in nature.

FREEDOM IN MODERN WORLD

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These essays examine the full range of human freedom - both freedom of choice and political freedom. Much of the discussion centres on The Idea of Freedom by Adler and the volume concludes with two essays in metaphysics.
FREEDOM OF THE MIGRANT

FREEDOM OF THE MIGRANT

By: Flusser, Vilem
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Vilém Flusser was one of the most fascinating and original European thinkers of the late twentieth century. In this collection of his essays on emigration, nationalism, and information theory, he raises questions about the viability of ideas of national identity in a world whose borders are becoming increasingly arbitrary and permeable. Flusser argues that modern societies are in flux, with traditional linear and textual epistemologies being challenged by global circulatory networks and a growth in visual stimulation. Beyond globalization, Flusser's ideas about communication and identity are rooted in the Judeo-Christian concept of self-determination and self-realization through recognition of the other.
FREEDOM'S RIGHT: THE SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEMOCRATIC LIFE

FREEDOM'S RIGHT: THE SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEMOCRATIC LIFE

By: Honneth, Axel
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Theories of justice often fixate on purely normative, abstract principles unrelated to real-world situations. The philosopher and theorist Axel Honneth addresses this disconnect, and constructs a theory of justice derived from the normative claims of Western liberal-democratic societies and anchored in morally legitimate laws and institutionally established practices.

Honneth's paradigm--which he terms "a democratic ethical life"--draws on the spirit of Hegel's Philosophy of Right and his own theory of recognition, demonstrating how concrete social spheres generate the tenets of individual freedom and a standard for what is just. Using social analysis to re-found a more grounded theory of justice, he argues that all crucial actions in Western civilization, whether in personal relationships, market-induced economic activities, or the public forum of politics, share one defining characteristic: they require the realization of a particular aspect of individual freedom. This fundamental truth informs the guiding principles of justice, enabling a wide-ranging reconsideration of its nature and application.

FREGES LECTURES ON LOGIC

FREGES LECTURES ON LOGIC

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When Bertrand Russell discovered an unresolvable contradiction in Gottlob Frege's (1848-1925) logical system, the effect was calamitous, embittering Frege and overshadowing his important work in analytical philosophy. Frege's student, Rudolf Carnap, took detailed notes of his lectures that show how Frege tried to address the contradiction and how he integrated his later doctrine of sense and reference into his exposition of logic. Reproduced in the original German with facing translations, these rare documents are published here for the first time.
FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE

FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE

By: Robertson, Ritchie
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An accessible and informative study of the life and work of this vaunted German philosopher.

In this concise yet comprehensive critical biography, Ritchie Robertson examines the work of Friedrich Nietzsche within the context of his life. The book traces Nietzsche's development from outstanding classical scholar to cultural critic, who measured Imperial Germany by the standards of ancient Greece. It follows him on his path from a prophet (in the persona of Zarathustra) to a savage polemicist against modern liberal values, offering a "philosophy of the future." Robertson argues that Nietzsche's middle-period writings offer a subtle and searching analysis of his culture, more rewarding than the strident and often-controversial later works. The book also assesses Nietzsche's claim to be continuing the Enlightenment and shows that he valued reason, evidence, and fact, without which his historical case against Christianity would make no sense.

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FRIENDSHIP

By: Grayling, A C
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An entertaining and provocative investigation of friendship in all its variety, from ancient times to the present day

A central bond, a cherished value, a unique relationship, a profound human need, a type of love. What is the nature of friendship, and what is its significance in our lives? How has friendship changed since the ancient Greeks began to analyze it, and how has modern technology altered its very definition? In this fascinating exploration of friendship through the ages, one of the most thought-provoking philosophers of our time tracks historical ideas of friendship, gathers a diversity of friendship stories from the annals of myth and literature, and provides unexpected insights into our friends, ourselves, and the role of friendships in an ethical life. A. C. Grayling roves the rich traditions of friendship in literature, culture, art, and philosophy, bringing into his discussion familiar pairs as well as unfamiliar--Achilles and Patroclus, David and Jonathan, Coleridge and Wordsworth, Huck Finn and Jim. Grayling lays out major philosophical interpretations of friendship, then offers his own take, drawing on personal experiences and an acute awareness of vast cultural shifts that have occurred. With penetrating insight he addresses internet-based friendship, contemporary mixed gender friendships, how friendships may supersede family relationships, one's duty within friendship, the idea of friendship to humanity, and many other topics of universal interest.

FROM BACTERIA TO BACH AND BACK: THE EVOLUTION OF MINDS

FROM BACTERIA TO BACH AND BACK: THE EVOLUTION OF MINDS

By: Dennett, Daniel C
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How did we come to have minds? For centuries, poets, philosophers, psychologists, and physicists have wondered how the human mind developed its unrivaled abilities. Disciples of Darwin have explained how natural selection produced plants, but what about the human mind?

In From Bacteria to Bach and Back, Daniel C. Dennett builds on recent discoveries from biology and computer science to show, step by step, how a comprehending mind could in fact have arisen from a mindless process of natural selection. A crucial shift occurred when humans developed the ability to share memes, or ways of doing things not based in genetic instinct. Competition among memes produced thinking tools powerful enough that our minds don't just perceive and react, they create and comprehend.

An agenda-setting book for a new generation of philosophers and scientists, From Bacteria to Bach and Back will delight and entertain all those curious about how the mind works.

FROM WEBER: ESSAYS IN SOCIOLOGY

FROM WEBER: ESSAYS IN SOCIOLOGY

By: Weber, Max
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An introduction to the work of the greatest German sociologist and a key figure in the development of present-day sociological thought.
FRONTIERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS: Interdisciplinary Studies in American Philosophy and Poetry

FRONTIERS OF CONSCIOUSNESS: Interdisciplinary Studies in American Philosophy and Poetry

By: Scott, Stanley
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Frontiers of Consciousness is a study of the problem of consciousness in a historic period of revolutionary change, and an authentic example of "interdisciplinary studies." The book contains a wealth of insight into the conceptual interrelationships between the work of the American philosophers who have been called the Builders (William James, Josiah Royce, Charles Peirce, and John Dewey) and the work of three great modernist poets (T. S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, and William Carlos Williams).
FUTURE FOR PHILOSOPHY

FUTURE FOR PHILOSOPHY

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A stellar selection of the world's most eminent philosophers give a picture of the current state of their subject, where it is going, and where it ought to be steered. Each offers a penetrating analysis of his or her particular specialism, building a volume that offers a vision of the future of all major branches of the discipline. It will make provocative reading not just for philosophers themselves, but for anyone intrigued by the question of what philosophy has left to do.
FUTURE OF RELIGION

FUTURE OF RELIGION

By: Vattimo, Gianni
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Though coming from distinct intellectual traditions, Richard Rorty and Gianni Vattimo are united in their criticism of the metaphysical tradition. The challenges they put forward extend beyond philosophy and entail a reconsideration of the foundations of belief in God and the religious life. They urge that the rejection of metaphysical truth does not necessitate the death of religion. Instead it opens new ways of imagining what it is to be religious.

This unique collaboration fuses pragmatism (Rorty) and hermeneutics (Vattimo) and recognizes the limits of both traditional religious belief and modern secularism. Rorty discusses Vattimo's work Belief and argues that the end of metaphysics paves the way for an anti-essentialist religion. Vattimo explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. In a concluding dialogue, both philosophers analyze the future of religion together with the political, social, and historical aspects that characterize our contemporary postmodern, postmetaphysical, and post-Christian world.

FUTURES PAST

FUTURES PAST

By: Koselleck, Reinhart
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With a new, interpretive introduction by the translator, this revised edition of Koselleck's most acclaimed work is once again available in English. Koselleck explores the concept of historical time by posing the question: What kind of experience is opened up by the emergence of modernity? Koselleck explores the concept of historical time by posing the question: what kind of experience is opened up by the emergence of modernity?

GADAMER READER

GADAMER READER

By: Gadamer, Hans-Georg
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The German volume Gadamer Lesebuch [A Gadamer Reader] (1997), selected and edited by Jean Grondin in consultation with Hans-Georg Gadamer himself, contains a set of essays that present a cross section of writings by one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers. The volume begins with an autobiographical sketch and culminates in a conversation with Jean Grondin that looks back over a lifetime of productive philosophical work. The essays not already available in English have here been translated by Richard E. Palmer, a respected translator of Gadamer's writings. The sixteen essays contained in the Lesebuch are augmented here by three other essays: Gadamer's last essay on Derrida, Hermeneutics Tracking the Trace (1994) and two essays on practical philosophy. The Gadamer Reader: A Bouquet of the Later Writings richly conveys the scope and depth of Gadamer's thought, covering the range of his work in hermeneutics, aesthetics, practical philosophy, and essays on Plato, Hegel, and Heidegger. In addition, Palmer offers introductory remarks before each essay that explain its importance in the context of Gadamer's writings and define its key terms. Throughout, in both his translation and commentary, his aim is to make this critically important philosopher as clear and accessible as possible to an English-speaking audience.
GALILEO'S ERROR: FOUNDATIONS FOR A NEW SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

GALILEO'S ERROR: FOUNDATIONS FOR A NEW SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

By: Goff, Philip
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From a leading philosopher of the mind comes this lucid, provocative argument that offers a radically new picture of human consciousness--panpsychism.

Understanding how brains produce consciousness is one of the great scientific challenges of our age. Some philosophers argue that consciousness is something extra, beyond the physical workings of the brain. Others think that if we persist in our standard scientific methods, our questions about consciousness will eventually be answered. And some even suggest that the mystery is so deep, it will never be solved. Decades have been spent trying to explain consciousness from within our current scientific paradigm, but little progress has been made.

Now, Philip Goff offers an exciting alternative that could pave the way forward. Rooted in an analysis of the philosophical underpinnings of modern science and based on the early twentieth-century work of Arthur Eddington and Bertrand Russell, Goff makes the case for panpsychism, a theory which posits that consciousness is not confined to biological entities but is a fundamental feature of all physical matter--from subatomic particles to the human brain. In Galileo's Error, he has provided the first step on a new path to the final theory of human consciousness.

GATHERING REASON

GATHERING REASON

By: Sallis, John
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This second edition of The Gathering of Reason expands on John Sallis's classic study of Kant's First Critique. This study examines the relation of imagination to reason and to human knowledge and action in general. Moving simultaneously at several different hermeneutical levels, Sallis carries out an interpretation of the Transcendental Dialectic of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Although, in contrast to the Analytic, the Dialectic seldom refers explicitly to imagination, Sallis shows that the concept of reason in the Dialectic requires the complicity of imagination. Sallis demonstrates that for Kant, reason alone does not suffice for bringing before our minds the metaphysical ideas of the soul, the world, and God; rather it is through the force of imagination that these ideas are brought forth and made effective. A new preface situates the book in relation to Sallis's later work, and an extensive afterword focuses on Kant and the Greeks.
GENDER TROUBLE

GENDER TROUBLE

By: Butler, Judith
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One of the most talked-about scholarly works of the past fifty years, Judith Butler's Gender Trouble is as celebrated as it is controversial.

Arguing that traditional feminism is wrong to look to a natural, 'essential' notion of the female, or indeed of sex or gender, Butler starts by questioning the category 'woman' and continues in this vein with examinations of 'the masculine' and 'the feminine'. Best known however, but also most often misinterpreted, is Butler's concept of gender as a reiterated social performance rather than the expression of a prior reality.

Thrilling and provocative, few other academic works have roused passions to the same extent.

GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY: FOUNDATIONS, DEVELOPMENT, APPLICATIONS

GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY: FOUNDATIONS, DEVELOPMENT, APPLICATIONS

By: Von Bertalanffy, Ludwig
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Bertalanffy's selected writings on his theory of laws applicable to virtually every scientific field. This conceptual approach has had a profound impact on biology, economics, psychology, and demography, with new relevancies today. The new foreword by University of Vienna system theory professor, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, and Centre for Systems Philosophy director, David Rousseau, discusses the theory's contemporary applications.