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IRONY AND SARCASM

IRONY AND SARCASM

By: Kreuz, Roger
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A biography of two troublesome words.

Isn't it ironic? Or is it? Never mind, I'm just being sarcastic (or am I?). Irony and sarcasm are two of the most misused, misapplied, and misunderstood words in our conversational lexicon. In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, psycholinguist Roger Kreuz offers an enlightening and concise overview of the life and times of these two terms, mapping their evolution from Greek philosophy and Roman rhetoric to modern literary criticism to emojis.

Kreuz describes eight different ways that irony has been used through the centuries, proceeding from Socratic to dramatic to cosmic irony. He explains that verbal irony--irony as it is traditionally understood--refers to statements that mean something different (frequently the opposite) of what is literally intended, and defines sarcasm as a type of verbal irony. Kreuz outlines the prerequisites for irony and sarcasm (one of which is a shared frame of reference); clarifies what irony is not (coincidence, paradox, satire) and what it can be (among other things, a socially acceptable way to express hostility); recounts ways that people can signal their ironic intentions; and considers the difficulties of online irony. Finally, he wonders if, because irony refers to so many different phenomena, people may gradually stop using the word, with sarcasm taking over its verbal duties.

ISOCRATES 1 Discourses

ISOCRATES 1 Discourses

By: Isocrates
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The importance of Isocrates for the study of Greek civilisation of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. From 403 to 393 he wrote speeches for Athenian law courts, and then became a teacher of composition for would-be orators. After setting up a school of rhetoric in Chios he returned to Athens and established there a free school of 'philosophia' involving a practical education of the whole mind, character, judgment, and mastery of language. This school had famous pupils from all over the Greek world, such as the historians Ephorus and Theopompus and orators Isaeus, Lycurgus, and Hypereides. Isocrates also wrote in gifted style essays on political questions, his main idea being a united Greece to conquer the Persian empire. Thus in his fine Panegyricus (written for the 100th Olympiad gathering in 380) he urged that the leadership should be granted to Athens, possibly in conjunction with Sparta. In the end he looked to Philip of Macedon, but died just as Philip's supremacy in Greece began.

Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters are also extant; they are concerned more with public than with private matters. The Loeb Classical Library edition of Isocrates is in three volumes. Volume I contains six discourses: To Demonicus, To Nicocles, Nicocles or The Cyprians, Panegyricus, To Philip, and Archidamus. Five are in Volume II: Areopagiticus, On the Peace, Panathenaicus, Against the Sophists, Antidosis. Volume III contains Evagoras, Helen, Busiris, Plataicus, Concerning the Team of Horses, Trapeziticus, Against Callimachus, Aegineticus, Against Lochites, and Against Euthynus, as well as the nine extant letters and a comprehensive index.

ISOCRATES 3 Orations Letters

ISOCRATES 3 Orations Letters

By: Isocrates
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The importance of Isocrates for the study of Greek civilisation of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. From 403 to 393 he wrote speeches for Athenian law courts, and then became a teacher of composition for would-be orators. After setting up a school of rhetoric in Chios he returned to Athens and established there a free school of 'philosophia' involving a practical education of the whole mind, character, judgment, and mastery of language. This school had famous pupils from all over the Greek world, such as the historians Ephorus and Theopompus and orators Isaeus, Lycurgus, and Hypereides. Isocrates also wrote in gifted style essays on political questions, his main idea being a united Greece to conquer the Persian empire. Thus in his fine Panegyricus (written for the 100th Olympiad gathering in 380) he urged that the leadership should be granted to Athens, possibly in conjunction with Sparta. In the end he looked to Philip of Macedon, but died just as Philip's supremacy in Greece began.

Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters are also extant; they are concerned more with public than with private matters. The Loeb Classical Library edition of Isocrates is in three volumes. Volume I contains six discourses: To Demonicus, To Nicocles, Nicocles or The Cyprians, Panegyricus, To Philip, and Archidamus. Five are in Volume II: Areopagiticus, On the Peace, Panathenaicus, Against the Sophists, Antidosis. Volume III contains Evagoras, Helen, Busiris, Plataicus, Concerning the Team of Horses, Trapeziticus, Against Callimachus, Aegineticus, Against Lochites, and Against Euthynus, as well as the nine extant letters and a comprehensive index.

IT WAS THE BEST OF SENTENCES, IT WAS THE WORST OF SENTENCES: A WRITER'S GUIDE TO CRAFTING KILLER SENTENCES

IT WAS THE BEST OF SENTENCES, IT WAS THE WORST OF SENTENCES: A WRITER'S GUIDE TO CRAFTING KILLER SENTENCES

By: Casagrande, June
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In this wickedly humorous manual, language columnist June Casagrande uses grammar and syntax to show exactly what makes some sentences great--and other sentences suck.

Great writing isn't born, it's built--sentence by sentence. But too many writers--and writing guides--overlook this most important unit. The result? Manuscripts that will never be published and writing careers that will never begin.

With chapters on "Conjunctions That Kill" and "Words Gone Wild," this lighthearted guide is perfect for anyone who's dead serious about writing, from aspiring novelists to nonfiction writers, conscientious students to cheeky literati. So roll up your sleeves and prepare to craft one bold, effective sentence after another. Your readers will thank you.

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IT'S ALL GREEK: BORROWED WORDS AND THEIR HISTORIES

By: Tulloch, Alexander
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Most of us are aware that the words for some of our most important concepts stem from ancient Greek roots--words such as geometry, democracy, technology, and aesthetics. But lesser known is the wide and varied scope of old Athenian influence on the English language, which extends to some of our most mundane, run-of-the-mill words--words like purse, sketch, and marmalade.

This book offers a word-by-word look at the influence of Greek on everyday words in English, telling the stories behind the etymological developments of each example and tracing their routes into modern English via Latin and European languages. It also explains connections with ancient Greek culture, in particular mythology, politics, and warfare, and includes proverbs and quotations from Greek literature. Revealing how deeply indebted we are to the language spoken in Athens 2,500 years ago, this book is the perfect gift for any logophile.

ITALIAN STORIES DUAL-LANG

ITALIAN STORIES DUAL-LANG

By: Hall, Robert A
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Designed for the language student as well as the lover of fine literature, this convenient dual-language book features eleven great short stories-- each one appearing in the original Italian, with vivid and accurate English translations on facing pages.

Arranged chronologically so that the growth of the literally art may be followed, as well as enjoyed, each story is prefaced by a concise biographical/critical introduction. Also included are linguistic and cultural notes, a valuable Italian-English vocabulary, study questions on each story, and an informative essay on Italian fiction.

ITALY ILLUMINATED 1

ITALY ILLUMINATED 1

By: Flavio, Biondo
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Biondo Flavio (1392-1463), humanist and historian, was a pioneering figure in the Renaissance recovery of classical antiquity. While serving a number of the Renaissance popes, he inaugurated an extraordinary program of research into the history, institutions, cultural life, and physical remains of the ancient Roman empire. The Italia Illustrata (1453), which appears here for the first time in English, is a topographical work describing Italy region by region. Its aim is to explore the Roman roots of the Renaissance world. As such, it is the quintessential work of Renaissance antiquarianism. This is the first edition of the Latin text since 1559.
JEWISH WAR 1-2

JEWISH WAR 1-2

By: Josephus
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Josephus, soldier, statesman, historian, was a Jew born at Jerusalem about 37 CE. A man of high descent, he early became learned in Jewish law and Greek literature and was a Pharisee. After pleading in Rome the cause of some Jewish priests he returned to Jerusalem and in 66 tried to prevent revolt against Rome, managing for the Jews the affairs of Galilee. In the troubles which followed he made his peace with Vespasian. Present at the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, he received favours from these two as emperors and from Domitian and assumed their family name Flavius. He died after 97.

As a historical source Josephus is invaluable. His major works are: History of the Jewish War, in seven books, from 170 BCE to his own time, first written in Aramaic but translated by himself into the Greek we now have; and Jewish Antiquities, in twenty books, from the creation of the world to 66 CE. The Loeb Classical Library edition of the works of Josephus also includes the autobiographical Life and his treatise Against Apion.

JEWISH WAR 3-4

JEWISH WAR 3-4

By: Josephus
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Josephus, soldier, statesman, historian, was a Jew born at Jerusalem about 37 CE. A man of high descent, he early became learned in Jewish law and Greek literature and was a Pharisee. After pleading in Rome the cause of some Jewish priests he returned to Jerusalem and in 66 tried to prevent revolt against Rome, managing for the Jews the affairs of Galilee. In the troubles which followed he made his peace with Vespasian. Present at the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, he received favours from these two as emperors and from Domitian and assumed their family name Flavius. He died after 97.

As a historical source Josephus is invaluable. His major works are: History of the Jewish War, in seven books, from 170 BCE to his own time, first written in Aramaic but translated by himself into the Greek we now have; and Jewish Antiquities, in twenty books, from the creation of the world to 66 CE. The Loeb Classical Library edition of the works of Josephus also includes the autobiographical Life and his treatise Against Apion.

JEWISH WAR 5-7

JEWISH WAR 5-7

By: Josephus
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Josephus, soldier, statesman, historian, was a Jew born at Jerusalem about 37 CE. A man of high descent, he early became learned in Jewish law and Greek literature and was a Pharisee. After pleading in Rome the cause of some Jewish priests he returned to Jerusalem and in 66 tried to prevent revolt against Rome, managing for the Jews the affairs of Galilee. In the troubles which followed he made his peace with Vespasian. Present at the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, he received favours from these two as emperors and from Domitian and assumed their family name Flavius. He died after 97.

As a historical source Josephus is invaluable. His major works are: History of the Jewish War, in seven books, from 170 BCE to his own time, first written in Aramaic but translated by himself into the Greek we now have; and Jewish Antiquities, in twenty books, from the creation of the world to 66 CE. The Loeb Classical Library edition of the works of Josephus also includes the autobiographical Life and his treatise Against Apion.

JOY OF SYNTAX: A SIMPLE GUIDE TO ALL THE GRAMMAR YOU KNOW YOU SHOULD KNOW

JOY OF SYNTAX: A SIMPLE GUIDE TO ALL THE GRAMMAR YOU KNOW YOU SHOULD KNOW

By: Casagrande, June
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Language columnist June Casagrande presents a fun and breezy guide to everything a grown-up interested in grammar needs to know.

When it comes to grammar, it seems like everyone--even die-hard word nerds--feel they missed something in school. The Joy of Syntax picks up where sixth grade left off, providing a fresh foundation in English syntax served up by someone with an impressive record of making this otherwise inaccessible subject a true joy. With simple, pithy information on everything from basic parts of speech and sentence structure to usage and grammar pitfalls, this guide provides everything you need to approach grammar with confidence.

JUVENAL & PERSIUS

JUVENAL & PERSIUS

By: Persius
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The bite and wit of two of antiquity's best satirists are captured here in a new Loeb Classical Library edition, a vivid and vigorous translation facing the Latin text.

Persius (34-62 CE) and Juvenal (writing maybe 60 years later) were heirs to the style of Latin verse satire developed by Lucilius and Horace, a tradition mined in Susanna Braund's introduction and notes. Her notes also give guidance to the literary and historical allusions that pepper Persius's and Juvenal's satirical poems--which were clearly aimed at a sophisticated urban audience. Both poets adopt the mask of an angry man, and sharp criticism of the society in which they live is combined with flashes of sardonic humor in their satires. Whether targeting common and uncommon vices, the foolishness of prayers, the abuse of power by emperors and the Roman elite, the folly and depravity of Roman wives, or decadence, materialism, and corruption, their tone is generally one of righteous indignation.

Juvenal and Persius are seminal as well as stellar figures in the history of satirical writing. Juvenal especially had a lasting influence on English writers of the Renaissance and succeeding centuries.

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KANJIPICTOGRAPHIX DRAGON BOOK: Blood, Fire and Spirit

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Kanji come to life with over 250 graphically illustrated mnemonics for learning essential Japanese characters. Colorful pages are filled with horses and tigers, palaces and pulpits, kings and lunatics, samurai and wizards. A world of soldiers, swords, spies, demons, fire, smoke, gushing blood, and dragons with claws and fangs.


While the format looks and feels more like a colorful story book than a textbook, KanjiPictoGraphix Dragon Book taps powerful learning methods derived from Rowley's career as an educational therapist and professor of information design.


The book begins with an 'Elements' chart of the building blocks of Japanese written language. Pages are organized into clusters of characters with common elements and meanings. The result is a semantic, meaningful narrative that makes learning the complex written forms easy to understand and remember. The hundreds of visual mnemonics draw upon a combination of visuals with genuine etymological roots along with contemporary visual interpretations to help you learn to read Japanese kanji quickly and joyfully.


Kanji are over 2,000 years old, so you will see some non-PC imagery that reflects ancient ideas about religion, women, men, children, animals, and old people. Rather than whitewash this, the book illustrates the meanings and ideas of an ancient, beautiful, and, at times, provocative language.


Michael Rowley is the founder and creative director at VizCab.com, a family-run print and mobile media design and branding business in Silicon Valley, California. He is the author of KanjiPictoGraphix for iPhone and iPad. His Twitter feed @KanjPicto distills and dissects the meanings of Japanese kanji vocabulary words. Early in his career Michael worked as an educational therapist at the Dannen School at La Cañada, taught English at Chaminade University Tokyo, digital imaging at The American Film Institute in Hollywood, and information design at Art Center Pasadena. He lives with his sweetheart, Kiki, and their four dogs and is a volunteer at ProjectRescueMe.com, an organization to rescue animals and end petlessness.


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LA FIN DU MONDE

By: Flammarion, Camille
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WORK IS IN FRENCH

This book is a reproduction of a work published before 1920 and is part of a collection of books reprinted and edited by Hachette Livre, in the framework of a partnership with the National Library of France, providing the opportunity to access old and often rare books from the BnF's heritage funds. The works in this collection have been digitized by the BnF and are presented on Gallica, its digital library.

By reviving these works through a collection of books reprinted on demand, we give everyone the opportunity to participate in the transmission of knowledge which is sometimes difficult to access.

We have tried to reconcile the faithful reproduction of an old book from its digitalized version with the concern of an optimal reading comfort. We hope the works of this new collection will bring you complete satisfaction.

French National Library Editions are authorized editions through Hachette France for works in the French National Library Catalog.

For more information, visit www.hachettebnf.fr

LA PRISONNIERE

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LANGUAGE and MIND

LANGUAGE and MIND

By: Chomsky, Noam
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This is the third edition of Chomsky's outstanding collection of essays on language and mind, first published in 2006. The first six chapters, originally published in the 1960s, made a groundbreaking contribution to linguistic theory. This edition complements them with an additional chapter and a new preface, bringing Chomsky's influential approach into the twenty-first century. Chapters 1-6 present Chomsky's early work on the nature and acquisition of language as a genetically endowed, biological system (Universal Grammar), through the rules and principles of which we acquire an internalized knowledge (I-language). Over the past fifty years, this framework has sparked an explosion of inquiry into a wide range of languages, and has yielded some major theoretical questions. The final chapter revisits the key issues, reviewing the 'biolinguistic' approach that has guided Chomsky's work from its origins to the present day, and raising some novel and exciting challenges for the study of language and mind.
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LANGUAGE and the PROBLEMS OF KNOWLEDGE

By: Chomsky, Noam
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"Language and Problems of Knowledge" is Noam Chomsky's most accessible statement on the nature, origins, and current concerns of the field of linguistics. He frames the lectures with four fundamental questions: What do we know when we are able to speak and understand a language? How is this knowledge acquired? How do we use this knowledge? What are the physical mechanisms involved in the representation, acquisition, and use of this knowledge?
Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf

Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf

By: Whorf, Benjamin Lee
$41.00
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Writings by a pioneering linguist, including his famous work on the Hopi language, general reflections on language and meaning, and the Yale Report.

The pioneering linguist Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941) grasped the relationship between human language and human thinking: how language can shape our innermost thoughts. His basic thesis is that our perception of the world and our ways of thinking about it are deeply influenced by the structure of the languages we speak. The writings collected in this volume include important papers on the Maya, Hopi, and Shawnee languages, as well as more general reflections on language and meaning.

Whorf's ideas about the relation of language and thought have always appealed to a wide audience, but their reception in expert circles has alternated between dismissal and applause. Recently the language sciences have headed in directions that give Whorf's thinking a renewed relevance. Hence this new edition of Whorf's classic work is especially timely.

The second edition includes all the writings from the first edition as well as John Carroll's original introduction, a new foreword by Stephen Levinson of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics that puts Whorf's work in historical and contemporary context, and new indexes. In addition, this edition offers Whorf's Yale Report, an important work from Whorf's mature oeuvre.

LATIN GRAMMAR

LATIN GRAMMAR

By: Maidhoff, Raffaela
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This brand-new textbook for students of classical literature presents a comprehensive summary of Latin grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure. Students are introduced to nouns in all genders and declensions, verbs in all conjugations and tenses, vocabulary, and bilingual passages that demonstrate classical Latin sentence structure. This book presents students with a very useful complement to their studies of classical Latin texts, such as Julius Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, the poetry of Virgil, and other literary works from the bards of ancient Rome.
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LATIN INSCRIPTIONS: ANCIENT SCRIPTS

By: Booms, Dirk
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Visitors to museums or ancient Roman sites are often confronted with Latin texts inscribed on objects or buildings from classical antiquity. To the uninitiated such Latin inscriptions can appear daunting -- a jumble of letters seemingly without structure or meaning. However, since they were meant to be understood by all levels of ancient Roman society, even those who couldn't read, these ancient inscriptions followed strict grammatical rules and standardized abbreviations that could be easily decoded.

This book will teach readers -- even those with no knowledge of Latin -- how to decipher these ancient messages. Each illustrated inscription is accompanied by a transcription, a transliteration in which all abbreviations are spelled out, a translation, and finally an interpretation of the text's meaning and significance.

Even the smallest piece of information in an inscription can aid classicists in reconstructing the daily lives of Romans, especially those less visible in the archaeological record: the poor, slaves, and women. In conveying devastation at the death of a loved one, comradery among soldiers, or the key events in individual lives, inscriptions can reveal much about ancient Roman history and culture.
LATIN: STORY OF A WORLD LANGUAGE

LATIN: STORY OF A WORLD LANGUAGE

By: Leonhardt, Jurgen
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The mother tongue of the Roman Empire and the lingua franca of the West for centuries after Rome's fall, Latin survives today primarily in classrooms and texts. Yet this "dead language" is unique in the influence it has exerted across centuries and continents. Jürgen Leonhardt has written a full history of Latin from antiquity to the present, uncovering how this once parochial dialect developed into a vehicle of global communication that remained vital long after its spoken form was supplanted by modern languages.

Latin originated in the Italian region of Latium, around Rome, and became widespread as that city's imperial might grew. By the first century BCE, Latin was already transitioning from a living vernacular, as writers and grammarians like Cicero and Varro fixed Latin's status as a "classical" language with a codified rhetoric and rules. As Romance languages spun off from their Latin origins following the empire's collapse--shedding cases and genders along the way--the ancient language retained its currency as a world language in ways that anticipated English and Spanish, but it ceased to evolve.

Leonhardt charts the vicissitudes of Latin in the post-Roman world: its ninth-century revival under Charlemagne and its flourishing among Renaissance writers who, more than their medieval predecessors, were interested in questions of literary style and expression. Ultimately, the rise of historicism in the eighteenth century turned Latin from a practical tongue to an academic subject. Nevertheless, of all the traces left by the Romans, their language remains the most ubiquitous artifact of a once peerless empire.

LE PARTI PRIS DES CHOSES

LE PARTI PRIS DES CHOSES

By: Ponge, Francis
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LE PETIT PRINCE

LE PETIT PRINCE

By: de Saint-Exupéry, Antoine
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OVER 140 MILLION COPIES SOLD

The beloved classic story about a young prince's travels through space -- a profound tale about loneliness and loss, and love and friendship -- in French.






A pilot crashes in the Sahara Desert and encounters a strange young boy who calls himself the Little Prince. The Little Prince has traveled there from his home on a lonely, distant asteroid with a single rose. The story that follows is a beautiful and at times heartbreaking meditation on human nature.

The Little Prince
is one of the best-selling and most translated books of all time, universally cherished by children and adults alike. In this French edition, the artwork has been restored to match in detail and in color Saint-Exupéry's original artwork.

LE ROUGE ET LE NOIR

By: Stendhal
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LE SAVON

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LEARN TO READ LATIN 2ND EDITION

LEARN TO READ LATIN 2ND EDITION

By: Russell, Stephanie
$57.00
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Learn to Read Latin helps students acquire an ability to read and appreciate the great works of Latin literature as quickly as possible. It not only presents basic Latin morphology and syntax with clear explanations and examples but also offers direct access to unabridged passages drawn from a wide variety of Latin texts. As beginning students learn basic forms and grammar, they also gain familiarity with patterns of Latin word order and other features of style.

Learn to Read Latin
  • is designed to be comprehensive and requires no supplementary materials
  • explains English grammar points and provides drills especially for today's students
  • offers sections on Latin metrics
  • includes numerous unaltered examples of ancient Latin prose and poetry
  • incorporates selections by authors such as Caesar, Cicero, Sallust, Catullus, Vergil, and Ovid, presented chronologically with introductions to each author and work
  • offers a comprehensive workbook that provides drills and homework assignments.
  • This enlarged second edition improves upon an already strong foundation by streamlining grammatical explanations, increasing the number of syntax and morphology drills, and offering additional short and longer readings in Latin prose and poetry.
    LEARN TO WRITE CHINESE CHARACTERS

    LEARN TO WRITE CHINESE CHARACTERS

    By: Björkstén, Johan
    $25.00
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    Chinese characters are one of the most fascinating aspects of the language and occupy a prominent place in Chinese culture. Good handwriting is also very important in learning Chinese: the strokes that make up the characters must be written in a certain rigidly specified order, and they must also be written in a special way.
    This book is the only introductory manual for writing Chinese characters prepared specifically for an English-speaking audience. The author guides the reader through the fundamentals of writing and introduces the different types of script used in China today, their evolution, their place in Chinese tradition, and the relation among them. The book provides basic instruction in writing with a modern fountain pen rather than a brush. Only commonly used characters--both simplified and full forms--appear as examples and exercises. Also included is an explanation of how to look up characters in a Chinese dictionary.
    This attractive and charming book, full of anecdotes and calligraphic aphorisms, is both a useful classroom tool and an enjoyable reading experience for anyone with an interest in the language and culture of China.

    LES CARACTERES

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    LES FEMMES SAVANTES

    LES FEMMES SAVANTES

    By: Moliere, Jean-Baptiste
    $11.95
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    LESSONS IN MOD HEBREW 2

    By: Coffin, Edna Amir
    $26.95
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    A comprehensive introduction to modern Israeli Hebrew, Lessons in Modern Hebrew: Level I and Level II provide English-speaking students and well-motivated individuals with all the basic classroom tools necessary for mastery of the language. The lessons introduce the student to the core vocabulary which is then included in reading passages, conversational text, and written communication. All grammatical features of modern Hebrew are thoroughly explained and reinforced by drills and exercises. The books have been classroom-tested at the University of Michigan. Both audio-lingual and cognitive approaches are used.

    Cassettes are available from the University of Michigan Language Resource Center Phone: (734) 764-0424; Email: lrc.contact@umich.edu.